What is a LED?

LED is an acronym that stands for light-emitting diode. Inside each LED there is a semiconductor that reacts to a continuous voltage source, generating light; this process is known as electroluminescence. Different types of LED can be created depending on the manufacturing and circuitry assembly technology used.

LED technology

A LED’s light-emitting operation is based on the activation of an inorganic semiconductor due to an electrical current. Depending on the compound used for the semiconductor, different types of light emissions and colors can be achieved. Take a look at the list below, where you will find the most common LED colors and their semiconductor composition:

    • Color
    • Wave length (NM)
    • Compound
    • Infrared radiation
    • λ > 760 NM
    • Gallium arsenide (GaAs)

      Gallium-aluminium arsenide (AlGaAs)

    • Red
    • 610 NM < λ < 760 NM
    • Gallium-aluminium arsenide (AlGaAs)

      Gallium arsenide phosphide (GaAsP)

      Gallium-indium-aluminum phosphide (AlGaInP)

      Gallium phosphate (GaP)

    • Orange
    • 590 NM < λ < 610 NM
    • Gallium arsenide phosphide (GaAsP)

      Gallium-indium-aluminum phosphide (AlGaInP)

      Gallium phosphate (GaP)

    • Yellow
    • 570 NM < λ < 590 NM
    • Gallium arsenide phosphide (GaAsP))

      Gallium-indium-aluminum phosphide (AlGaInP)

      Gallium phosphate (GaP)

    • Green
    • 500 NM < λ < 570 NM
    • Gallium phosphate (GaP)

      Gallium-indium-aluminum phosphide (AlGaInP)


    • Blue
    • 450 NM < λ < 500 NM
    • Zinc Selenide (ZnSe)

      Indium gallium nitride (InGaN)

      Silicon carbide (SiC) as a substrate

    • Violet
    • 400 NM < λ < 450 NM
    • Indium gallium nitride (InGaN)

    • Ultraviolet
    • 570 NM < λ < 590 NM
    • Indium gallium nitride (InGaN) (385-400NM)

      Diamond (c) (235NM) 73

      Boron nitride (BN) (215NM)74 75

      Aluminum nitride (ALN)(210NM)76

    • Red
    • Combination of several
    • Blue wit one or two layers of phosphorus

      Yellow with red, orange or pink phosphorus

    • White
    • Wide spectrum
    • Zinc Selenide (ZnSe)

      Indium gallium nitride (InGaN)

      Silicon carbide (SiC) as a substrate

A LED’s application and use

The first successful commercial use for LED-based technologies began with the infrared diodes commonly used in remote controls of all kinds of devices. However, LED-based technology is currently widespread across several industries.


The success and acceptance of LED-based lighting systems is due to its long lifespan, low energy consumption and great durability.


The advancement in LED-based technology has led to the creation of large sized LED screens, such as the ones placed in crowded areas used for advertisement and as information boards.


Due to its many benefits and advantages over traditional systems, it is no wonder that LED screens have become attractive for consumers and an attraction for the public; as we keep seeing an increased adoption of this technology in our streets and avenues.

LED Types

There are several types of LED-based technology for advertising LED screens:


LED DIP (Dual in-line package)

A highly resistant encapsulated LED that only emits one color. Commonly used in LED panels forming the RGB tricolor set (any color can be created with a combination of these three). These LEDs are a good option for outdoor LED screens, as they resist environmental wear and have great luminosity. The only drawback is their reduced viewing angle.


SMD LED (Surface-Mounted Device)

SMD LEDs combines red, green and blue (RGB) in a single package. This allows for smaller pixels with good viewing angles. While SMD LEDs are used for both indoor screens and outdoor screens ,they tend be less resistant and dimmer than the DIPs.


Vandal resistant / Outdoor resistant LED

Combining the strength and durability of the DIP LED with the versatility and definition of the SMD LED, this technology has an additional protective encapsulation that protects the LED’s semiconductors. This is the reason why it is more expensive than the SMD or DIP LEDs.


  • Great environmental resistance
  • High levels of brightness
  • Better color definition and quality than a conventional DIP
  • 3-color encapsulation
  • Better vision in short distances
  • 3-color encapsulation
  • Better image definition

Vandal resistant LED

  • The same advantages as the SMD LED
  • Additional protective case designed for impact, extreme weather conditions & extreme climates